Under population is the type of population that is less than the available resources of a country. It then means that the size of the population is so small that when combined with the available resources of a country and given the level of existing technology, it will secure minimum returns per head. In summary, under population is a situation where the population is too small relative to the available resources. The standard of living of the area can be increased if the population is increased.
1. Abundant resources: There will be abundance of resources in areas where there are resources endowment.
2. availability of employment: Due to the small size of the population and abundance of resources, employment opportunities will readily be available.
3. Low pressure on social amenities: Owing to low population, there is also low pressure on social amenities in the area.
4. Low congestion: Also, due to low population, there will be low or no congestion in housing, traffic etc.
5. Adequate planning: Owing to low population, these areas are properly planned for decent living.
6. Low crime rate is greatly reduced.
In as much as there are advantages, there are also disadvantages to, such are: the available labor force is grossly inadequate to mange the abundant resources available in the state; low level of production as a result of low level of manpower available production is generally very low. Workers generally earn low as a result of low level of production income and this leads to low savings and investments. Low standard of living due to inadequate labor force that would have promoted output, the standard of living will eventually fall; pipe borne water electricity etc, are grossly under utilized; disincentive to the government because it does not always feel like investing in places of under-population. As a result of low level of income per capital and fewer number of people, the size of the market is usually very small due to low demand. Finally, as a result of low output of goods and services, there is always a ow level of export for these goods and services.
Overpopulation is a situation where a country has more people than its physical and human resources can support with adequate living standards. In other words, over population refers to a situation where the population exceeds the available resources of a country. As a result of overpopulation, people will compete for the available resources and there will be a general fall in standard of living of the people. Over population can be controlled by family planning, discouragement of early marriage, increase in food supply, encouragement of monogamy, limiting the size of towns, provision of gainful employment for women, stiffening of immigration laws, sex and mass education from childhood ages of children and encouragement of emigration from thickly or densely populated areas to lowly populated areas.